Sexually Transmitted Diseases
STDs are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. Our expertise encompasses common culprits like chlamydia, mycoplasma, genital herpes, syphilis, anogenital warts and HIV-associated skin conditions. We provide full diagnostic panel for these conditions as well as appropriated treatment of the affected individuals, including advice on prevention where applicable.
Our HPV (human papilloma virus) expertise encompasses diagnosis and treatment of genital/perianal and intra-anal condylomas (ano-genital warts) as well as extensive HPV typing (more than 60 subtypes) and consultation for Gardasil vaccine in suitable individuals. Some HPV types affecting anogenital areas, like types 16, 18, 31 and 33 may produce are associated chronic infection and may cause cancer of the cervix or other genitalia.
We provide detailed confidential consultation in these conditions as well as referrals when necessary to other specialists who collaborate with our team including infectious disease specialists, gynecologists and colorectal surgeons. The prompt and efficient diagnosis and treatment of some of STDs, especially when in early stage can prevent their spread to the new partners, reversal of infection from current partners if they are treated as well, and the development of complications which, among other could result in infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal abnormalities, or involvement of other parts of the body.
Condylomas/Genital Venereal Warts and HPV Typing
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put you at risk for cancer. These types affect the genitals and you get them through sexual contact with an infected partner. They are classified as either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women. In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis.
Although some people develop genital warts from HPV infection, others have no symptoms. Your health care provider can treat or remove the warts. In women, Pap smears can detect changes in the cervix that might lead to cancer.
Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. A vaccine can protect against several types of HPV, including some that can cause cancer.
In HPV genotyping, cells from the cervix are analyzed in the laboratory to determine if a patient’s high-risk HPV is type 16 or 18. Types 16 and 18 are the most important high-risk types of HPV. Combined, these two types have been linked with 70% of all cervical cancer cases. More women with type 16 or 18 get cervical cancer than do women with other high-risk types of HPV.
Thus, if a woman age 30 or older tests positive for HPV genotype 16 or 18, additional testing would be recommended right away.
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause blisters and sores almost anywhere on the skin. These sores usually occur either around the mouth and nose, or on the genitals and buttocks.
HSV infections can be very annoying because they can periodically reappear. The sores may be painful and unsightly. For chronically ill people and newborn babies, the viral infection can be serious, but rarely fatal.
There are two types of HSV – Type 1 and Type 2
The Type 1 virus causes cold sores. Most people get Type 1 infections during infancy or childhood. They usually catch it from close contact with family members or friends who carry the virus. It can be transmitted by kissing, sharing eating utensils, or by sharing towels. The sores most commonly affect the lips, mouth, nose, chin or cheeks and occur shortly after exposure. Patients may barely notice any symptoms or need medical attention for relief of pain.
The Type 2 virus causes genital sores. Most people get Type 2 infections following sexual contact with an infected person. The virus affects anywhere between 5 and 20 million people, or up to 20 percent of all sexually active adults in the United States.
With either type of herpes simplex, you can spread lesions by touching an unaffected part of the body after having a herpes lesion.
How is Herpes Infections Treated?
There is no vaccine that prevents this disease from occurring. Oral anti-viral medications such as acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir have been developed to effectively treat herpes infections. These medications can be used to treat an outbreak or can be used for suppressing herpes recurrences. Lower doses may be helpful in reducing the number of herpes attacks in people with frequent outbreaks.
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral skin infection. The most common symptom of MC is small, firm, raised spots on the skin, which usually form in little clusters. MC is usually painless, although some people may feel mild to moderate itchiness. The condition is not a serious threat to health, but it can be annoying and unsightly.
In most cases, MC will go away within 18 months without the need for treatment.
The condition is highly infectious. However, most people are resistant to the molluscum contagiosum virus, meaning they are unlikely to develop MC if they come into contact with the virus.
- Cryotherapy involves freezing the lesions with liquid nitrogen to remove them. Each lesion is frozen for 5-10 seconds so that a layer of ice forms over the spot and surrounding skin. You may need several sessions of cryotherapy before each spot clears completely. You will need to wait two to three weeks between each treatment session.
- Diathermy uses heat to remove the lesions. After you have been given a local anaesthetic to numb the area being treated, your GP or nurse will use a heated electrical device to burn off the lesions.
- Curettage removes lesions by scraping them off with a thin metal instrument called a curette. As with diathermy, you may have a local anaesthetic to numb your skin before having this type of treatment.
Chlamydia is perhaps the most commonly contracted STD. It is estimated that as many as 75% of the population will contract Chlamydia at some time while sexually active. This statistic is alarming. Learn more about how you can protect yourself from this STD and also start reading up on the symptoms and treatments for Chlamydia. However, Chlamydia often presents without symptoms so find out why STD testing is so important for detection.
Gonorrhea is another very common disease. Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection transmitted mainly through sexual intercourse, although it can also sometimes develop in the throat as a result or performing oral sex on an infected person.
Initial symptoms of the disease occur within a few days of infection and include discharge from the penis or vagina, a painful anus and discomfort whilst passing urine.